Business Formation

The sole proprietorship requires no formalities, no documents to execute, and no separate bank accounts or tax returns. Many new business owners think about choosing to operate as a sole proprietor because it’s easy to get started. But since there is no separate legal identity from its owner, the sole proprietor will be personally liable for many things that can happen in the business, even if the business no longer exists. Now we’ll look at General Partnership. A General Partnership is an association of two or more persons or entities that conduct a business as co-owners. The partners invest capital and share in the profits and losses of the partnership. The partners are agents for each other, which means that if a partner enters into an agreement, it binds the other partner as well. The partnership is a separate legal entity, but partners can be liable on the partnership level and in some situations, on the individual level. Just as a note, limited partnerships allow one partner to have less liability and responsibility than the other.

A more complex option is a Corporation. Corporations allow the business owner to create a separate legal entity to conduct business. The corporation can raise money for the business by issuing and selling shares of stock that are owned by the corporation. The purchasers of the shares then become shareholders in the corporation but are not personally responsible for the corporation’s liabilities. The corporate form protects the business owner by shielding their personal assets from liability.

Finally, let’s discuss the Limited Liability Company. The LLC blends elements of the corporation and a partnership. LLC’s are very flexible and business owners can spell out virtually all aspects of the company’s management structure in its operating agreement. The profits and losses flow through to the personal tax return of the members of the LLC. Many start-up or small businesses today, choose the LLC because of its flexibility, limitation of liability, and reduced formalities.

There are many types of for profit and non for-profit business entities. The kind of business entity that you choose, and the people you choose to go into business with, are very important decisions to make. For more information on forming your for profit or non-profit business entity, please call The Evans Williams Law Group to schedule a consultation. We look forward to doing business with you.

Chapter 7 Bankruptcy

Chapter 7 is the single most common type of bankruptcy filed in the United States. Let me tell you a little bit about the process in Illinois.

First, you must determine if Chapter 7 makes sense for you. Our firm offers free consultations to help you make that important decision.  

After you have determined it makes sense, you’ll be asked to gather all your financial records like bank statements, credit card statements, loan documents, pay stubs and tax returns. The attorney will need this information to fill out the bankruptcy petition.

Before you file, most people have to take a Credit Counseling course. The purpose of the course is so that you will be better informed and educated regarding your financial situation.  

The course can be done in person, online or by phone. You must also complete the Debtor Education Course, which is the second part of the Credit Counseling Course, before your bankruptcy is finished.

Prior to filing bankruptcy, you must successfully pass the means test. The means test determines whether your income is low enough for you to file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. If you pass the means test, and complete the credit counseling class, you will be able to review and approve your petition before your attorney electronically files it.

Usually, 3 or 4 days after its filed, the court will issue a notice to your creditors listed on the bankruptcy petition, providing the date and time of your meeting of creditors, also known as the 341 meeting.  

During the 341 meeting, the bankruptcy trustee will ask you questions about the bankruptcy petition to determine if you are eligible for a discharge. It normally takes about 5 – 8 minutes.

Should the trustee find the need to investigate the bankruptcy further, the 341 meeting may be continued to a future date. Otherwise, the meeting will be concluded, and you will be on your way.  

If the trustee and the creditors do not object to you discharging the debts, no complaint is filed, and you have completed the Debtor Education course, the bankruptcy court will give you an order of discharge about 60 – 90 days after the 341 meeting.

Although Chapter 7 bankruptcy may help you get a fresh start, you need to understand all the benefits and consequences of filing bankruptcy. For more information, and to determine if Chapter 7 bankruptcy will work for you, please call The Evans Williams Law Group to schedule a free bankruptcy consultation. We look forward to working with you.

Cathe R. Evans Williams

Managing Attorney

Allocation of Parenting Responsibilities

In 2016, Illinois did away with the term “custody” and replaced it with “allocation of parental responsibilities.” Essentially, what this means is that the state took all of the parental responsibility issues commonly dealt with in a child custody case, and assigned responsibility to either or both parents.

According to the statute, the court considers parental responsibility to include two factors:

  1. Decision-making responsibilities; and
  2. Parenting time


As it relates to decision making responsibilities, the court separates them into four major areas of a child’s life:

  1. Education
  2. Health
  3. Religion
  4. Extracurricular activities


In determining who gets to make the decisions for the child, the court will do what it thinks is in the best interest of the child. There are 15 specific factors considered by the court. I won’t state all of them now, but some include:

  1. The wishes of the child,
  2. The wishes of the parents;
  3. The child’s needs;


With respect to parenting time, the court will also do what is in the best interest of the child. However, in addition to the factors used to determine parental responsibilities, the courts also consider three more factors in determining parenting time:

  1. The amount of time each parent has spent taking care of the child over the past two years;
  2. The relationship of the child with his or her parents or siblings or anyone else who may affect the child’s best interests; and
  3. Whether a restriction on parenting time is appropriate.


Allocation of Parental Responsibilities is the new custody. When dealing with these issues through the courts, you need attorneys who can explain the process and help you make good decisions for your family.  To get more information, please contact The Evans Williams Law Group to set up a consultation.

Cathe Evans Williams

Managing Attorney

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